2012年10月アーカイブ

ブラウザはそれぞれ、独自のCSSファイルを持っているため、CSSを指定していないと、ブラウザ間で差異が発生します。ブラウザ間で差異を無くすためのCSSとして、主に「リセットCSS」と「ノーマライズCSS」があります。

リセットCSSとは

リセットCSSとは、ブラウザに初期設定されているCSSを無効化するものです。そのため、全ての要素が同一のスタイルで表示されてしまいます。 リセットCSSを提案しているサービスは多くあるのですが、一番有名どころの>Yahoo! UI Libraryを紹介します。

CSSコード

/*
YUI 3.7.2 (build 5639)
Copyright 2012 Yahoo! Inc. All rights reserved.
Licensed under the BSD License.
http://yuilibrary.com/license/
*/
/*
	TODO will need to remove settings on HTML since we can't namespace it.
	TODO with the prefix, should I group by selector or property for weight savings?
*/
html{
	color:#000;
	background:#FFF;
}
/*
	TODO remove settings on BODY since we can't namespace it.
*/
/*
	TODO test putting a class on HEAD.
		- Fails on FF. 
*/
body,
div,
dl,
dt,
dd,
ul,
ol,
li,
h1,
h2,
h3,
h4,
h5,
h6,
pre,
code,
form,
fieldset,
legend,
input,
textarea,
p,
blockquote,
th,
td {
	margin:0;
	padding:0;
}
table {
	border-collapse:collapse;
	border-spacing:0;
}
fieldset,
img {
	border:0;
}
/*
	TODO think about hanlding inheritence differently, maybe letting IE6 fail a bit...
*/
address,
caption,
cite,
code,
dfn,
em,
strong,
th,
var {
	font-style:normal;
	font-weight:normal;
}

ol,
ul {
	list-style:none;
}

caption,
th {
	text-align:left;
}
h1,
h2,
h3,
h4,
h5,
h6 {
	font-size:100%;
	font-weight:normal;
}
q:before,
q:after {
	content:'';
}
abbr,
acronym {
	border:0;
	font-variant:normal;
}
/* to preserve line-height and selector appearance */
sup {
	vertical-align:text-top;
}
sub {
	vertical-align:text-bottom;
}
input,
textarea,
select {
	font-family:inherit;
	font-size:inherit;
	font-weight:inherit;
}
/*to enable resizing for IE*/
input,
textarea,
select {
	*font-size:100%;
}
/*because legend doesn't inherit in IE */
legend {
	color:#000;
}
/* YUI CSS Detection Stamp */
#yui3-css-stamp.cssreset { display: none; }

ノーマライズCSSとは

ノーマライズCSSとは、リセットCSSとは異なり、ブラウザに初期設定されているCSSを活用し、最小限のスタイルを備えたCSSです。その上で、ブラウザ間の差異を無くしたものです。そのため、見出しや段落といったものがわかりやすくなります。

ノーマライズCSSについてはこちらの記事を参考にしてください。

CSSコード

/*! normalize.css v2.0.1 | MIT License | git.io/normalize */

/* ==========================================================================
   HTML5 display definitions
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Corrects `block` display not defined in IE 8/9.
 */

article,
aside,
details,
figcaption,
figure,
footer,
header,
hgroup,
nav,
section,
summary {
    display: block;
}

/*
 * Corrects `inline-block` display not defined in IE 8/9.
 */

audio,
canvas,
video {
    display: inline-block;
}

/*
 * Prevents modern browsers from displaying `audio` without controls.
 * Remove excess height in iOS 5 devices.
 */

audio:not([controls]) {
    display: none;
    height: 0;
}

/*
 * Addresses styling for `hidden` attribute not present in IE 8/9.
 */

[hidden] {
    display: none;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Base
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * 1. Sets default font family to sans-serif.
 * 2. Prevents iOS text size adjust after orientation change, without disabling
 *    user zoom.
 */

html {
    font-family: sans-serif; /* 1 */
    -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
    -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 2 */
}

/*
 * Removes default margin.
 */

body {
    margin: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Links
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Addresses `outline` inconsistency between Chrome and other browsers.
 */

a:focus {
    outline: thin dotted;
}

/*
 * Improves readability when focused and also mouse hovered in all browsers.
 */

a:active,
a:hover {
    outline: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Typography
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Addresses `h1` font sizes within `section` and `article` in Firefox 4+,
 * Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

h1 {
    font-size: 2em;
}

/*
 * Addresses styling not present in IE 8/9, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

abbr[title] {
    border-bottom: 1px dotted;
}

/*
 * Addresses style set to `bolder` in Firefox 4+, Safari 5, and Chrome.
 */

b,
strong {
    font-weight: bold;
}

/*
 * Addresses styling not present in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 */

dfn {
    font-style: italic;
}

/*
 * Addresses styling not present in IE 8/9.
 */

mark {
    background: #ff0;
    color: #000;
}


/*
 * Corrects font family set oddly in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 */

code,
kbd,
pre,
samp {
    font-family: monospace, serif;
    font-size: 1em;
}

/*
 * Improves readability of pre-formatted text in all browsers.
 */

pre {
    white-space: pre;
    white-space: pre-wrap;
    word-wrap: break-word;
}

/*
 * Sets consistent quote types.
 */

q {
    quotes: "\201C" "\201D" "\2018" "\2019";
}

/*
 * Addresses inconsistent and variable font size in all browsers.
 */

small {
    font-size: 80%;
}

/*
 * Prevents `sub` and `sup` affecting `line-height` in all browsers.
 */

sub,
sup {
    font-size: 75%;
    line-height: 0;
    position: relative;
    vertical-align: baseline;
}

sup {
    top: -0.5em;
}

sub {
    bottom: -0.25em;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Embedded content
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Removes border when inside `a` element in IE 8/9.
 */

img {
    border: 0;
}

/*
 * Corrects overflow displayed oddly in IE 9.
 */

svg:not(:root) {
    overflow: hidden;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Figures
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Addresses margin not present in IE 8/9 and Safari 5.
 */

figure {
    margin: 0;
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Forms
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Define consistent border, margin, and padding.
 */

fieldset {
    border: 1px solid #c0c0c0;
    margin: 0 2px;
    padding: 0.35em 0.625em 0.75em;
}

/*
 * 1. Corrects color not being inherited in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Remove padding so people aren't caught out if they zero out fieldsets.
 */

legend {
    border: 0; /* 1 */
    padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/*
 * 1. Corrects font family not being inherited in all browsers.
 * 2. Corrects font size not being inherited in all browsers.
 * 3. Addresses margins set differently in Firefox 4+, Safari 5, and Chrome
 */

button,
input,
select,
textarea {
    font-family: inherit; /* 1 */
    font-size: 100%; /* 2 */
    margin: 0; /* 3 */
}

/*
 * Addresses Firefox 4+ setting `line-height` on `input` using `!important` in
 * the UA stylesheet.
 */

button,
input {
    line-height: normal;
}

/*
 * 1. Avoid the WebKit bug in Android 4.0.* where (2) destroys native `audio`
 *    and `video` controls.
 * 2. Corrects inability to style clickable `input` types in iOS.
 * 3. Improves usability and consistency of cursor style between image-type
 *    `input` and others.
 */

button,
html input[type="button"], /* 1 */
input[type="reset"],
input[type="submit"] {
    -webkit-appearance: button; /* 2 */
    cursor: pointer; /* 3 */
}

/*
 * Re-set default cursor for disabled elements.
 */

button[disabled],
input[disabled] {
    cursor: default;
}

/*
 * 1. Addresses box sizing set to `content-box` in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Removes excess padding in IE 8/9.
 */

input[type="checkbox"],
input[type="radio"] {
    box-sizing: border-box; /* 1 */
    padding: 0; /* 2 */
}

/*
 * 1. Addresses `appearance` set to `searchfield` in Safari 5 and Chrome.
 * 2. Addresses `box-sizing` set to `border-box` in Safari 5 and Chrome
 *    (include `-moz` to future-proof).
 */

input[type="search"] {
    -webkit-appearance: textfield; /* 1 */
    -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
    -webkit-box-sizing: content-box; /* 2 */
    box-sizing: content-box;
}

/*
 * Removes inner padding and search cancel button in Safari 5 and Chrome
 * on OS X.
 */

input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button,
input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration {
    -webkit-appearance: none;
}

/*
 * Removes inner padding and border in Firefox 4+.
 */

button::-moz-focus-inner,
input::-moz-focus-inner {
    border: 0;
    padding: 0;
}

/*
 * 1. Removes default vertical scrollbar in IE 8/9.
 * 2. Improves readability and alignment in all browsers.
 */

textarea {
    overflow: auto; /* 1 */
    vertical-align: top; /* 2 */
}

/* ==========================================================================
   Tables
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Remove most spacing between table cells.
 */

table {
    border-collapse: collapse;
    border-spacing: 0;
}

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